For Two Thousand Years: Mihail Sebastian (1934)

Romanian Mihail Sebastian’s novel For Two Thousand Years reads like a memoir at times, and then occasionally like a diary. This is a remarkable, closely autobiographical book that begins and ends in antisemitism from 1923 until the early 30s. Hailed as a seminal novel that charts the rise of fascism, for this reader the novel is shocking in its portrayal of the national acceptance of antisemitism which is captured in raw moments, casual encounters and even from close friends.

For Two Thousand Years

When the book begins, the unnamed narrator is attending university in Bucharest, studying law.  Well … trying to attend, at least, as to attend almost certainly guarantees a beating. The heavily anti-Semitic student body asks for names and then beatings follow.

This morning I went to the class on Roman law. No one said a word to me. I took notes feverishly, in order not to have to lift my eyes from my desk. Halfway through the lecture, a ball of paper falls on the bench, beside me. I don’t look at it, don’t open it. Someone shouts my name loudly from behind. I don’t turn my head. My neighbor to the left watches me carefully, without a word. I can’t endure his gaze and I look up.


He barks the command. He stands up, making space for me to get by, and waits. I feel a tense silence around me. Nobody breathes. Any gesture from me and this silence will explode. 

No. I slide out of the desk and slip towards the door between the two rows of onlookers. It all happens decorously, ritually. Someone by the door lashes out with his fist, but it is a glancing blow. A late punch, my friend. 

For Two Thousand Years is divided into six sections and follows the narrator’s university career as he switches from law to architecture, and then the book follows the narrator’s career.  Throughout the novel, the narrator, a gentle man, wrestles with questions of what it means to be a Jew. He’s tugged by the two rival camps of Zionism and Marxism which are manifested mainly through friendships with two other young Jewish students. Winkler wants to leave Romania and travel to Palestine while the wild S. T. Haim, in whom being a Jew is subordinated to Marxism, finds Zionism absurd.

The idea of a Palestinian Jewish state, created through an act of national will–what an absurdity! And at the same time, what savagery! Don’t you see the machinations of the English in this whole business, a capitalist venture, which the massacred native Arabs and the Jewish proletariat of the colony will pay for, their very blood exploited in the name of the national idea. Great Britain needs a right-hand man to guard the Suez Canal, so it’s invented this myth of a ‘Jewish homeland.’ ‘Homeland’ is too nice a word. No doubt some Quaker or Puritan came up with it. But millions of sentimental Jews have taken it at face value.

Contrasting with these two extremes is the marvelous Maurice Buret, a character who appears later in the book, and who, according to the narrator, operates in “the total moral vacuum in which he lives.”  The term “two thousand years,”of Jewish history is debated when the narrator meets an elderly Jewish bookseller on a train who argues for the beauty of Yiddish and the “folklore of the ghetto.” While the narrator argues that Jews naturally assimilate into various cultures and that Yiddish “however beautiful it may be” is a “precarious thing” with which “to bind a culture,” the bookseller has a different opinion:

Have you forgotten that, luckily, there are still anti-Semites. And, thank God, that there are pogroms from time to time? However much you’re assimilated in a hundred years, you’ll be set back ten times as much by a single day’s pogrom. And then the poor ghetto will be ready to take you back in.

The narrator is an astute observer and chronicler of human nature, and his descriptions breathe life into characters, who in the hands of a less nimble writer, would appear as cardboard cut-outs–embodiments of political ideals.

Throughout the novel, as the years pass, we follow the narrator through his friendships, his admiration for an anti-Semitic professor who persuades him to change his field of study, love affairs and even, eventually, work contracts. Through all of this there’s the threat of violence, of revolution, of massacre, a “great historical conflagration,” faint rumblings like the foreshocks of a major seismic event–an event that we readers know will occur. “Death to the Yids” is called in the streets so casually, that no one even pays attention anymore:

At the corner, towards Boulevard Elisabeta, was a group of boys selling newspapers. “Mysteries of Cahul! Death to the Yids.!”

I have no idea why I stopped. I usually walk calmly by, because it’s an old, familiar cry. This time I stopped in surprise, as if I had for the first time understood what these words actually meant. It’s strange. These people are talking about death, and about mine specifically. And I walk casually by them, thinking of other things, only half-hearing.

Yet with such deeply rooted antisemitism defining society for so long, even we are shocked when the narrator is calmly told by a friend, who asserts that he’s not antisemitic, but simply Romanian, that he wants to “eliminate several hundred thousand” Jews. His wish was soon to come true.

Mihail Sebastian’s real name was Iosif Mendel Hechter (1907-1945). He was killed crossing the street on the way to teach a class on Balzac.

Review copy

Translated by Philip Ó Ceallaigh



Filed under Fiction, Sebastian Mihail

17 responses to “For Two Thousand Years: Mihail Sebastian (1934)

  1. Sounds powerful. Shame about the Balzac.

  2. I like the sound of this. It’s hard to comprehend that antisemitism was once so entrenched and that this kind of behaviour was so accepted.

  3. I’ve ordered this. We hear a lot about German and Russian anti-Semitism, but not so much about how entrenched it was throughout Europe.

  4. I finally found a copy of this in Romanian and plan to read it very soon. I was ashamed that his Romanian ‘friend’ and mentor wrote a vicious preface to this book at the time it was published and doomed him to oblivion.

    • The introduction goes into that. The ‘friend’ was a professor (Ionescu) that the author knew and admired. He was also anti-semitic. Apparently the author was surprised/shocked by the preface but after mulling it over. decided to include it.

  5. Interesting. Funny enough, I’m just reading a Romanian author myself. She writes in German though.

  6. It sounds tremendous. I read a review of this once over at John Self’s and I recall he was very taken by it too, but I hadn’t recalled the sheer everyday brutality that it records. Was it a difficult read, in terms of subject matter I mean?

    • No it wasn’t. Other students are beaten up but they seem to take it as a matter of course, or even of pride. Much of the book is concerned with the narrator’s relationships as people try to drag him to Zionism or Marxism. His Marxist friend for example seems to shout at everyone and at one point calls everyone dilettantes.
      A big section of the book is concerned with the narrator’s career as an architect and people drop in and then out of sight.
      The most shocking part IMO occurs when one of the narrator’s friends says he’d like to see several hundred thousand Jews exterminated and knows there’s a Jew standing right next to him! The book effectively shows how all these debates were intellectualized–including antisemitism, so the mechanics of making ‘several hundred thousand Jews’ disappear seemed ‘ok’ to talk about–the boys selling papers shouting ‘death to the Jews’ as quoted above is an example.
      No, no death scenes or torture. The narrator comes across as a very mild, quiet, thoughtful and genial person. We get to hang out in his contemplative thoughts.

  7. I’m glad I kept this review in my mail box. I’m very interested in this, especially in these desolate times.
    I’ll see if I can find it in French.

  8. Totally missed you reviewed this Guy. I agree, it’s a remarkable book. I was pointed to it by John Self’s review, as mentioned by Max.

    That episode with the newspaper boys’ cries grabbed me as well. Hard to comprehend what it does to someone to live with that all around them. He does a very impressive job of staying sane.

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